Aphanius sureyanus (Burdur Killifish) is endemic to the Burdur Lake, in South-western Turkey. In this paper, the current conservation status of the species is briefly reviewed and presented based on the available data and recent observations. Aphanius sureyanus is assessed as “Endangered” (EN) in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It has been suggested that the major threats to the species are desiccation of Burdur Lake, as well as increasing salinity and pollution. The findings pointed out an ongoing trend towards irrecoverable habitat loss and population decline. Therefore, the IUCN threat category of the species is recommended to be re-assessed as Critically Endangered (CR). Some parameters on the reproduction of the species in captivity is also provided for the first time. Females deposited four to six adhesive eggs into moss-shaped mops per day. The egg diameter was ranged between 1.25 and 1.50 mm with an average ±SD of 1.37 ±0.09 mm.