Due to lack of self-repair mechanism in neuronal tissue, biomaterials have been widely studied to regenerate damaged nerve tissue. Despite having advantages, nano materials may cause oxidative stress and this could affect the treatment. In the present study, whether PHBV [poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)] used for axonal regeneration could lead to lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation in rats or not and also its effects on antioxidant molecules was explored. In the study, PHBV nanofiber membranes were formed by electrospinning and conduits were formed by using the nanofiber membrane. After the formation of a 1 cm gap in the rat peritoneal nerves, PHBV conduits were placed. Animals were sacrificed at 17th week after the operations. Malondialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), glutathione (GSH) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities of livers, as well as surrounding tissues of conduits (muscles) and serums were measured. Compared to control groups, MDA, AOPP and GSH levels and SOD activites in all graft group serums showed a significant increase, while only MDA and AOPP levels in tissues were statistically higher. Therefore, these findings suggest that PHBV nerve graft used for sciatic nerve defects may lead to oxidative stress in rats.