Volume 45 Issue 1

January 2017

A Crystallographic, EPR and DFT Investigations of a Novel Magnetically Silent Mono-atom Acetate-Bridged Binuclear Schiff Base-Copper(II) Complex

Arecent example of one-atom acetate bridged symmetric dinuclear copper(II) complexes, Di-μ-acetato-bis{1-((pyridin-2-ylmethylimino)methyl)naphthoxo}copper(II) ([Cu2(NP)2(Ac)2]•2MetOH(1)) (HNP=1-((pyridin-2-ylmethylimino)methyl)naphthol)) have been prepared and characterized by X-ray crystallography, Elemental analyses, ESI-mass, UV-Vis and IR spectroscopic techniques. Magnetic properties of the complex have been probed by EPR measurements and the presence of spin-only paramagnetism of the compound with none of significant exchange coupling has been demonstrated unlike ferro or antiferromagnetism that was otherwise observed in all other analogous structures previously reported. The existence of a trivial ferromagnetic exchange which is quantitatively ignorable has been suggested by DFT-Broken Symmetry calculations performed at crystallographically characterized experimental geometry. 

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Novel, Highly Soluble Non-Peripherally Phthalocyanines Bearing Bulky Groups Containing Fluorine Atoms: Synthesis, Characterization, Spectral and Improved Photophysicochemical Properties

The synthesis of a new phthalonitrile (1) was described by treating 3-nitrophthalonitrile with 4-(3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,9,9,10,10,10-heptadecafluorodecylthio)phenol. After that, its soluble zinc(II) (2), magnesium(II) (3), cobalt(II) (4) and indium chloride(III) (5) non-peripheral phthalocyanine derivatives were reported for the first time. The newly synthesized metallo phthalocyanine derivatives were characterized by mass spectrometry, UV-Vis, FT-IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Photochemical and photophysical (photodegradation, singlet oxygen and fluorescence quantum yields) properties of the phthalocyanines were carried out in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Metallo-phthalocyanines, which containing a bulky long alkyl chain bearing fluorine atoms, have high solubility in known organic solvents such as THF, dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform (CHCl3) and toluene and do not show aggregation. Besides, the effect of metal ion types in phthalocyanines core (2, 3, 4 and 5) were also investigated. The effects of the substitution with fluoroalkynyl-functionalized groups on these parameters mentioned were also compared along with the previously synthesized peripherally tetra and octa substituted phthalocyanines. Non peripherally position of the substituents on Pc improved photophysical and photochemical properties. 

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Fatty Acid Composition in Larva, Pupa, Adult and Prey of Mud-Dauber Wasp, Sceliphron destillatorium (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae)

Fatty acid composition of larvae, pupae, and adults of the mud-dauber wasp, Sceliphron destillatorium Illiger 1807, as well as spiders obtained from its nests was investigated for the first time. All samples were obta- ined from mud nests of the wasp collected from the field. Adults of this insect feed on nectar of flowers but their larvae feed on spiders. Totally 15 fatty acids were identified and quantified by GC-FID in analyzed samples. The highest of all fatty acids is oleic acid which was found as: 43.87%, 42.43%, 48.69%, and 43.88% in larvae, pupae, adult, and the spiders respectively. Fatty acid compositions in larvae, pupae, and spiders were found close to each other. Alpha linolenic acid was determined in larva, pupa, and spider but not in adults, so it seems to be essential fatty acid for this wasp species. The data obtained are usable to reveal the relationship between fatty acid composition and nutrition or physiological events in insects. 

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Investigation of Both Drought Stress and In Vitro Culture Conditions Induced Epigenetic Alteration in Genetically Pure Bread Wheat Line Derived from Pehlivan Cultivar

In the current study; mature bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) embryos from doubled haploid wheat line obtained from Pehlivan cultivar were cultured on drought stress induction medium (MS + 0.1 mgL-1 2.4-D + diffe- rent concentrations PEG 6000 (0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 gL-1) for 28 days. Effects of drought stress on regenerated plants and methylation alterations due to both drought stress treatment and in vitro culture conditions were investigated in the combination of Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) with methylation sensitive restriction enzyme (MspI and HpaII) digestions techniques on 28-day-old control and stress treated regenerated plants. Drought stress decreased the average of plant height and fresh weight of regenerated plants than the controls. A 90% polymorphism rate and 0.6 epigenetic similarity were obtained between cont- rols and drought stress treated experimental groups with the combination of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes and IRAP. Additionally, the epigenetic similarity ratios between the two controls were detected to 0.733. As a result of these; to investigate methylation alterations due to both in vitro culture conditions and drought stress applications under in vitro conditions can be obtained more realistically performance with using genetically pure line. 

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Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(vinyl chloride–graft– ethylene glycol) Graft Copolymers by “Click” Chemistry

Synthesis of poly(vinyl chloride–g–ethylene glycol) [poly(VC–g–EG)] graft copolymers was carried out by me- ans of “click” chemistry of propargyl polyethylene glycol (propargyl PEG) and terminally azide polyvinyl chloride (PVC–N3). Primarily propargyl PEG was synthesized by the reaction of PEGs (3000 Da, 2000 Da, 1500 Da, 1000 Da, 600 Da, and 400 Da) with propargyl chloride. PVC–N3 was obtained by reaction of purified PVC and sodium azide. By using PVC–N3 and propargyl PEG, poly (VC–g–EG) graft copolymers were synthesized. The primary parameters such as concentration, and time that influenced the reactions were assessed. The charac- terization of products was accomplished by using multi instruments and methods such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography, elemental analysis, and fractional precipitation [non-solvent (petroleum ether, mL)/solvent (THF, mL)] techniques. 

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Indoor Air Quality of the Library at İstanbul University, Turkey

This study aimed to determine the concentration and composition of opportunistic airborne microfungal pathogens in different parts of the library of İstanbul University, Turkey. Dichloran glycerol 18 agar and malt extract agar were used for isolation and a total of 1830 and 1290 microfungal colonies were collected during the whole study period, respectively. Contamination levels in sampling areas were classified according to the Commission of European Communities report’s classifications and a high contamination level was determined in Archive 1, while an intermediate contamination level was determined in other sampling areas. The most common airborne microfungi were identified as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigatus. 

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Validation of the Charge Equalization Principles during the Formation of Small Molecules

The electrophilicity equalization principle recently presented by Chattaraj and his co-workers has been criti- cized by Szentpaly. In the present report, we found that the charge equalization process for small molecule is successfully depicted by the geometrical mean models but for very big molecules the existing geometrical mean models failed to depict the charge equalization scenario. The expressed good agreement between the results obtained from our equation and the results obtained from geometric mean equation vide supra, leads us to conclude that Chattaraj’s geometric mean equation and other equalization principles are still useful and cannot be ignored completely. 

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Synthesis and Characterization of Schiff Base Polymer Dyes Containing Electron-Withdrawing and Electron Releasing Groups

New thermally stable water soluble azo dye and azo-Schiff base polymer dyes were synthesized via conden- sation reaction of 4-methyl pyridine and poly-(4,4’-diamino)biphenyl-2,2’-disulfonic acid with substituted azo-coupled 2-hydroxy-5-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl) benzaldehyde. For the structural analyses of synthesized substances FT-IR and NMR analysis, florescence and UV-Vis measurements for optical properties and the thermal behavior (TG-DTA) of the prepared dyes have been determined using thermogravimetric technique. Azomethine dyes (AZOBMS and AZOBMSP) have relatively higher thermal durability in comparison to azo dye (AZOBM). The solvatochromic studies of the prepared dyes in DMSO, DMF, CH3CN and THF. In addition, spect- rophotometric and spectrofluorometric studies showed that these dyes were good absorbent and fluorescent. The effect of various organic solvents with different polarities on the UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence analyses of the dyes has been also studied. 

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A New Ultrasonic Assisted Cloud Point Extraction and Preconcentration Procedure for the Spectrophotometric Oxalate Determination in Beverages

Anew ultrasonic-assisted cloud point extraction procedure (UA-CPE) was developed for preconcentration of oxalate in beverages prior to determination via spectrophotometry. At optimal conditions, the calibration curve was highly linear in a working range of 0.4–170 μg L−1. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.12 and 0.40 μg L−1. the precision as the percentage relative standard deviation, RSD% (n: 5; 10, 15, 30 μg L−1) was lower than 3.5%. The method was successfully applied to the determination of soluble and total oxalate in beverage samples using two different acidic extraction approaches under ultrasonic power. Finally, the method was validated by comparing the results obtained with those of the reference method. 

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Floristic List of Tohma (Malatya-Sivas, Turkey) Valley

The list of the vascular plants specimens of Tohma valley (Malatya-Sivas) was given in this study. 1816 plant specimens were collected from the research area between 2007-2015 years. At the end of the identification of the collected specimens and the results of previous studies, 81 families, 353 genera, 847 species, 18 sub-species, 6 varieties and 871 taxa in total were determined. The largest 3 families are Asteraceae (102 species), Brassicaceae (78 species) and Fabaceae (77 species). The largest 4 genera are Astragalus (31 species), Alys- sum (17 species), Onosma (14 species) and Salvia (14 species). The phytogeographical spectrum of the species is as follows: Irano-Turanian elements 298 (35.18%), Mediterranean elements 39 (4.60%) and Euro-Siberian elements 27 (3.18%) and multi-regional or phytogeographical unknown 483 (57.02%). The number of endemic species in the research area was determined as 169 (20%). At the same time, new IUCN categories of twelve taxa were proposed. 

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Nutraceutical Value of Four Oyster Mushroom Species, Higher Basidiomycetes

This work was achieved to determine the nutritional value (total protein, crude fiber, phenolic compounds, total carbohydrate, ash, dry matter, moisture content and pH) of four oyster mushrooms species namely; P. ostreatus (grey), P. ostreatus (white), P. cornucopiae var. citrinopileatus (yellow) and P. salmoneostramineus (pink), were investigated on three agro-substrates mixtures; S1 (wheat straw), S2 (70% wheat straw, 20% saw- dust and 10% date palm fiber) and S3 (50% wheat straw, 30% sawdust and 20% date palm fiber) media. The variety of oyster mushroom showed significant (P<0.05) differences of nutritional value of oyster mushroom on various substrates. The mixture which composed from one substrate was poorer in mineral value than oth- ers which composed from more one. Generally, the higher protein content showed in P. cornucopiae (32.21%) compared with P. ostreatus (grey) (23.83%) as a lower value. P. ostreatus (grey) recorded total phenol, total carbohydrates and crude fibers 2.82 g/kg, 40.72% and 9.97%, while P. salmoneostramineus recorded 1.35 g/ kg, 48.02% and 23.75% respectively. P. ostreatus (white) showed higher value of ash and dry matter (11.3% and 12.81%) than P. ostreatus (grey) and P. salmoneostramineus in values 7.0% and 9.93%, respectively. 

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Investigation of Antimicrobial, Antiproliferative and Antioxidant Properties of Satureja boissieri Essential Oil

The aim of this study was to investigate the biological activities of Satureja boissieri Hausskn. ex Boiss. (Lami- aceae) essential oil. Antimicrobial effects of the major components from the essential oil were determined by agar well and disc diffusion methods. Antiproliferative effect of the essential oil against human colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT-29) cell line was evaluated by Real Time Cell Analyzer xCELLigence method. In addition, total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of the essential oil were determined. The results show that thymol, thymol 40%:carvacrol 60%, and terpinene-4-ol 25%:carvacrol 75% had significant antimicrobial activity against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and S. aureus ATCC 29213 strains. Also, the essential oil exhibited the high inhibitory effect on the growth of HT-29 cell line (IC50<10 μg/mL). 

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Removal of Heavy Metals From Aqueus Solution Using Activated Carbon Embedded Cryogels

In this study poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) based activated carbon (AC) embedded cryogel discs were synthesized, characterized and their application for nickel and copper removal from aqueous solutions were investigated. The effect of pH and initial metal concentration on the adsorption capacity of the cryogels were studied in batch systems. Desorption of heavy metal ions was also studied and it was shown that synthe- sized discs could be repeatedly used without significant loss in the adsorption capacity after five repetitive adsorption–desorption processes. 

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