In this study, we aimed to search the anatomical and palynological characteristics of Castanea sativa which is a botanical source for Turkish propolis. Within this context, we investigated the transverse section of leaf and stem of Castanea sativa. We observed palisade and spongy parenchyma, upper and lower epidermis, schle- renchyma and vascular bundles in the transverse section of the leaf by microscopic examination. We observed periderm, schlerencymatic tissue, secondary xylem, secondary phloem, vascular cambium and a parenchyma- tic pith in the tranverse section of the stem. By palynological analysis pollen grains are found radially symmet- ric, isopolar and tricolporate. Besides the microscopic analysis, the chemical content of Castanea sativa propo- lis was analysed by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Alcohols, aldehydes, aliphatic acids and their esters, carboxylic acids and their esters, cinnamic acids and their esters, flavonoids, hydrocarbons, and ketones were determined by chemical analysis of propolis ethanol extract. “Benzoic acid“was found in hig- hest ratio 7.88% in the extract. The anatomical, palynological and chemical results of this study will be guide for further researchs about beekeeping and bee products in Turkey.