Volume 42 Issue 4

December 2014

The Taxonomy and Ecology of Meles Meles (L., 1758) in Western Turkey

In this study 21 specimens were collected from various localities to investigate the ecology and taxonomy of Meles meles in Western Turkey. Apart from these 28 badger specimens obtained from various collections were also used in the study. It has been recorded that the badgers live mainly in agricultural areas as well as bushy and forest areas and woodlands. They were found to feed on both animal and herbal food. The age groups of the specimens were determined. The morp- hological features and meauserements of the baculum were given. The taxonomic data of the adult specimens were compared with the badger specimens recorded from the palaearctic region and it was found that the collected specimens represented in nominative form. 

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Comparing Botanical Origin and Volatile Compounds of Some Turkish Honey Samples

The aim of this study is to determine relations exist between microscopic analysis and chemical profile in ho- ney samples collected from Turkey. For this purpose, nine honey samples were collected. Eight of them were obtained from different locations of Turkey (Adana, Erzincan, Erzurum, Düzce, Rize, Hatay) and one from market shelf. The samples were grouped according to their botanical origins after microscopic analysis. According to the results of microscopic analysis, we found that four of them are multifloral, three of them are chesnut, one of them is Calluna and the last one is honeydew honey. The volatile compounds of the honey samples were determined by Solid Phase Microextraction/Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) method. The results showed that it is impossible to standardize the multifloral honeys in chemical composition base. Accor- ding to our results “Aminoacetophenone” can be a marker compound for chesnut honeys, “Nonanal” for Calluna honey. Definite marker compound could’nt be identified for investigated honeydewhoney in this research. 

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A New Host for Phoma trachelii Allesch.

Michauxia L’Hér. (Campanulaceae) is reported as a new host genus for the Phoma trachelii microfungi and also Phoma trachelii is reported for the first time from Turkey. The morphological and microscopical fea- tures of this fungi is described based on the collected materials with figures. 

469 - 471
Second Record Of Rare Cave-Dwelling Beetle, Choleva (Cholevopsis) bertiae Giachino & Vailati, 2000 (Coleoptera: Leiodidae), from Tütüncüini and Sarikaya Caves in Eskişehir

Choleva (Cholevopsis) bertiae was described by Giachino and Vailati in 2000 based on 34 specimens collec- ted in different dates, the latest 1990, from four different caves on Taurus mountain systems in south-wes- tern part of Turkey. We here reported this species identifying 10 specimens collected from two different caves in Eskişehir which is far from type locality about 500-800 km and after 14 years as second record for Turkey. Redescription of the species are given with the photograps of both gender habitus and male genitalia. 

473 - 477
Claw Wing: Unnoticed Character in Floral Morphology of The Genus Dianthus (Caryophyllaceae) with Taxonomic Implication and a New Section

The specimens of Dianthus pinifolius Sm. were collected during a field trip to the Bulgarian border of NW Tur- key. It was recognized that the petals have a pair of wing on claw and it has a billamellate shape. Hairs, colour zonation of the limb, and ridges on the claws have been long known as typical petal characters of Dianthus. In this study claw wing is recognized in this species of the genus for the first time and reported to the scientific community. Generic circumscription of Dianthus L. is enlarged by recognition of the claw wing by comparing with the other genera of the Caryophyllaceae. Furthermore, in consideration of the diagnostic characters for delimiting the infrageneric taxa, the presence of claw wing is justified as a diagnostic character for describing a new section of Dianthus, hence Sect. Pinifoli Dönmez sect. nov. proposed as a new section for the genus. Diagnostic characters of the section, description, detailed illustration and a composed picture of the type spe- cies are also supplied. 

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Surface Modifications of Cationic Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) Dendrimers

PAMAM dendrimers are a new class of macromolecular polymers, with a highly branched three-dimensional structure that provides a high degree of surface functionality and versatility. These nanospherical polymers possess exclusive properties which make them potential carriers for drug and gene delivery. PAMAM dendrimers allow the precise control of size, shape and placement of functional groups that is desirable for many life science applications. However, positive charge at the surface renders cytotoxicity to the cationic PAMAM dendrimers, which limits their clinical usefulness. Modification of dendrimer surface groups is one of the methods available in order to reduce the toxicity and improve their biocompatibility. In this review, firstly a brief description is provided about the characteristics and structure of PAMAM dendrimers. Then, various modification routes with the aim of decreasing the cytotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers are presented and discussed. 

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The impacts of some metals on the activity of corb gill (Umbrina cirrosa) Carbonic Anhydrase

Metal toxicity causes oxidative stress in fish. This situation is a potential risk factor for humans and other living feeding on contaminated fish. In this study, the inhibition effects of heavy metals on carbonic anhy- drase enzyme from the corb fish gill were investigated. The carbonic anhydrase enzyme was purified from gill of corb fish with a specific activity of 2093,9 EUmg−1 and 86,51% yield and approximately 160 fold using Sep- harose 4B–L-tyrosine sulfanilamide affinity chromatography method. SDS–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed a single band corresponding to a molecular weight of approximately 30,8 kDa. Inhibitory effects of metals (Ag+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Ni2+) on CA activity were determined at different concentrations using the hydratase method under in vitro conditions. Consequently, in vitro inhibition rank order was determined as Ag+> Cu2+> Pb2+> Zn2+ > Cd2+> Ni2+. From these results, we showed that Ag+ is the most potent inhibitor of CA enzyme. 

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The First Description of Male and Female Genital Organs of Lanelater Persicus (Candèze, 1874) (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

In this study, male and female genital organs of L. persicus are examined for the first time. Stereo-microsco- pe photographs of male and female genitalia were taken. Male genital organ was drawn in detail. Male genital organ and bursa copulatrix part of female genital organ were described in detail and compared with closely related species. 

505 - 507
Human IgG Adsorption by Spherical Albumin Biosorbents in SBF Media

The objective of this study was to investigate the removal efficiency of immunoglobulin G (IgG) by albumin bi- osorbents in batch wise in four different simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions at room temperature. Albumin biosorbents were prepared as microsphere form by emulsion polymerization method. 0.1 g/ml albumin concentration, 1000 rpm stirring rate, 1% glutaraldehyde (GA) concentration 30 minutes crosslinking time were determined as optimal conditions in our previous study. The prepared biosorbents were then studied for IgG removal efficiency in four simulated body fluid (SBF) solutions [N(Normal)-SBF, G(glucose)-SBF, H(hepes)-SBF, T(tris)-SBF] at room temperature. IgG capturing capacity was obtained as 320 mg IgG/g with albümin biosor- bent (94,6%) in N-SBF. It was observed that there was no leakage at washing with water. It may be concluded that prepared albumin biosorbents are sufficient in terms of efficiency of IgG removal. It was seem that this method is easy to perform and is useful as a first step in the detection of diagnostic markers in body fluids by applying proteomics technologies. We believe that albumin biosorbents offered the promising approach with good removal specificity and efficiency of IgG. 

509 - 515
Faunistical, Ecological and Zoogeographical Assessments on Some Subfamilies of The Family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) in Ankara Province

This study was carried out with excursions which species belonging to the family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) were collected in May-July, 2003, May-August, 2008 and April-June, 2009 in Ankara province. As a result of the study, 28 species belonging to 15 genera and five subfamilies (Aleocharinae, Omaliinae, Oxytelinae, Tachyporinae, Paederinae) were identified. Sampling localities, distributions of the species in Turkey and World are given. Specimen numbers, vertical distributions, collecting months and habitats, distributions of species in other geographical regions of Turkey and Zoogeographic regions are shown. According to present literature 18 of all detected species are new records for Ankara and Mycetoporus baudueri Mulsant & Rey, 1875 is a new record for Turkey. 

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Temperature Profiles And Sex Ratio Estimation For Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) Hatchlings On Sugözü Beaches

In this study, the effect of nest temperature and surrounding sand temperature on sexual differentiation were examined for green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings on Sugözü Beaches (Adana, Turkey) in 2005 nesting season. Nest temperatures were found to be higher than the surrounding sand temperatures, especially du- ring the middle and last third period of incubation (respectively, 0.6°C and 1.9°C). The nest temperature was mostly related to the incubation duration and this was followed by the distance of the nest from the sea and the clutch size. Any relationship between nest temperature and nest depth was not found. Nest temperatures (ranged between 29.4-31.6°C) and middle third temperatures (ranged between 29.5-31.3°C) were measured above 28.9°C, which is the pivotal temperature. The sex ratio in green turtle hatchlings in the area investigated according to the temperature profile was prominently biased toward females. 

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Silica Based Specific Adsorbents for DNA Purification

The aim of this study is to prepare silica based affinity sorbents for the purification of plasmid DNA and ge- nomic DNA. For this purpose, (3-aminopropyl)trimethoxysilane (APTS) is chosen for surface modification of silica particles (average size: 100-150 μm) and silica based affinity sorbent carrying NH2 groups on its surface is obtained. APTS modified and unmodified silica particles are characterized by elemental analysis. Adsorption of genomic DNA on the APTS modified silica particles is performed in continuous and batch systems. Effect of io- nic strength, pH, temperature, initial genomic DNA concentration and flow rate is investigated. In the last part of the study, pEGFP-N3 plasmid DNA is separated from E.coli cells by using the APTS modified silica particles and the results are compared with commercial Qiagen DNA purification kit. The results may be summarized as follows: amount of NH2 groups on the APTS modified silica particles is in the range of 38-60 mmol/g. Maximum adsorption capacity of the APTS modified silica particles is found to be 49.3 mg/g and this value is obtained at pH 7.0. Genomic DNA adsorption capacity of the APTS modified silica particles is increased in continuous system. It is also shown that the APTS modified silica particles can be used after ten adsorption-desorption cycle without any significant decrease in adsorption capacity. The APTS modified silica particles are used for adsorption of plasmid DNA from E.coli cells and adsorption capacity is found to be 0.21 mg/g in continuous system. 

537 - 544
Essential Oil Composition of Papaver rhoeas L. (Corn poppy) (Papaveraceae) from Turkey

The genus Papaver is represented with the 50 taxa Turkey Flora, and it is the important genus in means of medicinal and aromatic plants. It has different type alkaloids. In the mediterranean, corn poppy greens are eaten as a vegetable. In this study, Papaver rhoeas L. was collected from the Elazig region and analysed chemically to determine the essential oil composition. The essential oil of the aerial parts obtained by hydrodistilla- tion from Papaver rhoeas was investigated by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil yield is 0.2 % (v/w). Twenty one constituents were comprised the 98.6% of the total essential oil extracted from the plant. The predominant compounds of Papaver rhoeas were determined as phytol (52.8%), tricosane (7.8%), 2-pentadecanone (6%), heneicosane (5.3%). Consequently, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons were shown to be the main group of essential oil of the species. 

545 - 549
The Determination of Antioxidant Vitamin Levels, Radical Scavenging Effect of Elaeagnus Angustifolia Methanol Extracts Against to MDA

Free radical; atomic or molecular structures with single-electron compounds. With other molecules that can be very easy to electron exchange across the molecules “an oxidant molecules” or “reactive oxygen partic- les” also be said. Antioxidants compound that stop the formation of the free radicals or dispel negative effects of items. this, to do inhibited the radical reaction systems. or non-toxic products there is no turning it on. The most of antioxidants found in foods. With an antioxidant-rich diet, free radicals and active oxygen consisting of the which is the basis of disease oxidative damage can be prevented [1]. This the nutrition-type especially fruits vegetables natural anti-oxidant resources [2]. In this study aimed that to determine the Antioxidant vitamin levels, radical-scavenging properties of Elaeagnus angustifolia methanol extracts against to prevent formation MDA. The material obtained from a plant seller in Elazığ. Extracted from plants was performed using methanol solvent. Extraction process was done of plant parts by weight of 2 grams in weight was 10 times the solvents. Spectral analysis with Shimadzu model UV 1400 spectrophotometer, antioxidant vitamins with the same brand HPLC was carried out. Plant extracts of the DPPH radical knockdown activity the method specified,[3] the OH- radical destruction the method indicated[4], Antioxidant capacity ABTS radical destruction activity[5] lipid peroxidation (LPO) measurements using as standard Fenton Quercetin, Resvesterol reagents MDA-TBARS by the method[6], vitamins analysis using the methods [7, 8, 9] was performed. Radical scavenging activity from 100μL-800μL concentration measurements were performed with two evil-fold increase. Results of DPPH radi- cal scavenging and OH· radical knock down activity increased with concentration difference. MDA analysis com- parison with the control group showed significant differences. MDA analysis with controls Quercetin standards compared were not statistical different, both the extracted measurements and control groups fenton reagent and resveratrol standard compared with a significant statistical difference was observed. p<0,05. Vitamin K1 was found at the lowest level. Vitamin E and vitamin K2 was detected similar pattern. Vitamin D2, vitamin E, and vitamin K2 almost 4 times more than, approximately 8 times greater than vitamin K1 found. Vitamin A level in fat soluble all vitamins the highest level of detected. Vitamin C is the highest level in all vitamins, Antioxidant capacity were determined higher than %90. Consequently; our work has confirmed that; Angustifolia fruit is the source of a powerful antioxidant. It has high radical scavenging. We believe that ıts frequent ingestion may reduce oxidative stress may be protective against the disease. 

551 - 556
Some Biomarkers of Kidney Diseases

Kidneys are one of the indispensible organs of our body especially for hemostasis and responsible for regu- lates arterial pressure, blood filter, water balance, gluconeogenesis etc. Renal diseases have been divided acute kidney injury and chronic kidney diseases according to glomerular filtration rate. At last stage of glome- rular filtration rate (5. stage) is not only harmful but also irreversible stage, for overcoming this stage kidney transplant and dialysis are important medical cares. Nowadays biomarkers are useful indicator for diagnostic, therapy and monitoring of diseases control. In this review, some biomarkers were represented and supported by research articles for diagnostic chronic kidney disease with acute kidney injury. 

557 - 562
Purification of Lysozyme with Congo Red Immobilized Cryogel Discs

In this study, congo red immobilized poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [CR-PHEMA] cryogel discs were pre- pared for purification of lysozyme. CR-PHEMA cryogel discs were characterized by swelling test, elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Lysozyme adsorption was performed from aqueous solutions and maximum lysozyme adsorption capacity of CR-PHEMA cryogel discs was found to be 136.6 mg/g. Effects of initial lysozyme concentration, pH and ionic strength on lysozyme adsorption capacity of CR-PHEMA cryogel discs were investigated. Maximum adsorption was obtained at pH 8.0. In the last step of this study, lysozyme was purified from egg white using CR-PHEMA cryogel discs. Egg white fractions were observed on sodium do- decyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 

563 - 568
Preconcentration and Voltammetric Determination of Silver Ions On PVF+Cl- Modified Platinum Electrode

Preconcentration of silver (I) ions on poly(vinylferrocenium)/chloride (PVF+Cl-) modified platinum electrode prior to differential pulse anodic stripping determination of the metal was reported. At the optimum conditions, a calibration curve having two linear parts with different slopes was obtained at the concentration intervals 1x10-3 M – 5x10-5 M and 5x10-6 M – 1x10-8 M. The detection limit was determined as 1x10-9 M. The relative standard deviation was calculated as 9.56 % (n = 6) for 1 x 10-6 M Ag+ solution. Interferences of Hg2+, Fe3+ and Pb2+ ions which are capable of forming chloride complexes were examined. The modified electrode was applied to determination of silver ions in spiked water samples. 

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