Volume 41 Issue 4

December 2013

Electrochemical behaviour of metal complexes of salicylic acid hydrazide

The present article deals with the electrochemical investigations of salicylic acid hydrazide (SAH) and its complexes of cadmium(II), copper(II), manganese(II), nickel(II), zinc(II), cobalt(III) and iron(III). The results obtained in polarography are compared with that in cyclic voltammetric studies. The effect of height of the mercury column on wave height, the effect of concentration of the complex on the wave height and half wave potential and the effect of temperature etc were studied in detail and the sites susceptible for reduction were explored and presented. 

301 - 315
A pathway to break seed dormancy of endemic Nigella turcica Dönmez & Mutlu (Ranunculaceae): GA3 and KNO3

Nigella turcica Dönmez & Mutlu (Ranunculaceae) is a narrow endemic species and closest relative is N. sativa (black cumin) has an economic importance. In this study, optimum conditions of seed germination was searched for N. turcica. Germination did not occur during 45 days either 4 or 16°C. Potassium nitrate and giberellic asid (GA3) with 10 and 25 ppm concentrations were ineffective in embro growth. Optimal conditions to seed germination of N. turcica have been determined as 100 ppm concentrations of giberellic asid at 16°C. 

317 - 320
Cloud point extraction for preconcentration of Pb(II), Fe(III), Cr(III) and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry

Acloud point extraction (CPE) method for preconcentration of Pb(II), Fe(III) and Cr(III) has been established. This is based on the complexation of the metal ions with p-nitrophenylazoresorcinol (Magneson I) at pH 6.5 in the presence of non-ionic surfactant of octylphenoxy polyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The main factors affecting CPE efficiency, such as sample pH, complexing agent concentration, Triton X-114 concentration, temperature and incubation time were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, the detection limits (3s, = 10) of Pb(II), Cr(III) and Fe(III) were 2.5, 2.3 and 1.9 μg L-1, respectively. The relative standard deviation for ten replicate determinations of the analytes was less than 2.4%. The validation of the procedure was carried out by analysis of certified reference materials. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of lead, chromium and iron in tap water and some food samples. 

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Effects of exogenous polyamines on leaf area of sunflower grown in salinity stress

This study investigated the effects of polyamines, which were applied exogenously in growth period of sunflo- wer (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Santafe) plants grown, under controlled conditions, on leaf pairs and total leaf surface area. Salt was used in 3 different concentrations (50, 100 and 200 mM NaCl) and also, spermine, spermidine and putrescine was applied in 3 levels (0.01, 1 and 2 mM). The leaf and stems of sunflower plants grown in salt culture solutions in Hoagland and at various concentrations for 45 days were sprayed with polyamine solution every other 3 days and 8 times in total as from the 15th day.

The total leaf areas and areas of leaf pairs decreased depending on increasing salt concentration. Sper- mine, spermidine and putrescine sprayed to plants were able to show positive effect only under specific and limited conditions. Putrescine was determined to be the most effective polyamine in removing the inhibitory effect of salt on leaf area. 

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Detection of Bt gene and seed purity in maize

In this study we have described the detection of Bt gene and seed purity in maize by using PCR based method. Fifty four maize varieties were used for the detection of Bt gene by using BT1 and 35S primer having size of 195bp and 301bp respectively. Of these, fifteen varieties contained Bt gene which means that these varieties can not be used for further breeding. Ninety six seeds of maize were used for purity check by bnlg 161 SSR primer. Results showed that these seeds were 95% pure with 5% impurity. So these results showed that PCR based markers were very helpful in cultivar identification which leads to the improvement in maize breeding programs. 

341 - 346
Current methods and the ones in perspective for the determination of biogenic amines in food

Biogenic amines are organic compounds, present in living organisms and they can be a responsibility for many essential processes. Naturally, they can be also in fruits and vegetable and all foods that contain free amino acids or proteins. In a high amount they can be produced by microorganism through the enzymatic reac- tion. Histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, tyramine, tryptamine, β-phenylethylamine, spermine and spermidine are considered to be the most important biogenic amines occurring in foods. Excessive consumption of these amines can inflict health concern and analysis of biogenic amines is important based on their toxicity and their usage as indicators of the degree of freshness or spoilage of food. Several methods exist for isolation, identif- ying and determination of biogenic amines in food. They are mainly based on chromatographic methods: thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC), capillary electrophoresis (CE) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Due to the low volatility and lack of chromophores of most biogenic amines, UV- spectrometric detection is limited. A new challenge is electrochemical determination of those amines based on oxidative reaction. This review shows different methods which allow quantitative determination of biogenic amines in different food stuffs. 

347 - 356
EGF and TNF-a levels and oxidative/ nitrosative stress in breast and non-small cell lung cancer patients

Malignant cells exhibit increased levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and altered levels of antioxidant molecules. The aim of this study was to evaluate the serum levels of some antioxidants, pro- ducts of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, growth factor and cytokine in the serum of breast and non- small cell lung cancer patients. This study includes 20 patients with breast cancer, 20 patients with non-small cell lung cancer and 20 healty subjects with no cancer as controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were measured in the serums. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and epidermal growth factor; low levels of NO and TNF-a were observed in cancer patients. Elevated GSH concentrations and decreased SOD activities were found in the serum of all the cancer groups. The results of our study suggest that enhanced oxidative damage altered the levels of these molecules in cancer patients. 

357 - 363
The least weasel (Mustela nivalis) (Mammalia, Carnivora) from Central Anatolia: an overview on some biological characteristics

In this study, we examined some biological characteristics of Mustela nivalis from Kırıkkale and Çorum in Central Anatolia, collected between 2011-2012. The specimens studied had “nivalis”-type coloration, by an straight demarcation line between the dorsal and ventral part of the body.The structure of the hair was “broad petal” at the proximal of shaft, while “elongate petal” at distal. Tip of the baculum was hook-shaped having two developed knobs in adults. An ectoparasite, Haemaphysalis sulcata,is also detected on specimens. Comparison with the previous data on body size, we conclude that specimens from Central Anatolia were bigger than the European specimens with respect to external and cranial measurements. 

365 - 370
The Antiproliferative effects of subtituents in formazan derivatives aganist HeLa and C6 cell line

Antiproliferation activity of TPF and 1-substituted phenyl-3-(p-methoxycarbonyl)phenyl-5-phenylformazans were determined against HeLa an C6 cell line using BrdU cell proliferataion ELISA assay. Cisplatin and 5-florouracil were used as standarts. The activities of samples and standarts were investigated on eight concentations. The effects of substituents and substituents positions on antiproliferation activities were examined. Assay experiments indicated that o- OCH3, m-CH3 and p-I displayed maximum activity against HeLa while o- NO2, m-I and also p-I were active against C6. 

371 - 378
Interference of some artificial tracers on spectral determinations

The aim of this study is to decide which dyes can be used together as artificial tracers in the same water system study and how to avoid their interference at each other when they are in the same water sample, too. In this paper only spectral separation of fluorescent dyes in binary water sample mixtures and treatments based on pH-variations are described. Concentration and synchronous scan methods were used for the measu- rement of Rhodamine WT Liquid, SRG Extra, Uranine and Eosin fluorescence by the means of a Luminescence Spectrometer LS 55. 

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