Volume 40 Issue 4

September 2012


TitlePages
Preface

Dear readers of the Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry,

Preface: A Farewell Note

In the winter of 2007 I became a chief editor of Hacettepe Journal of Biology and Chemistry, which published annually since 35 years. Shortly after I became the editor, I decided to publish journal as four issues per year. I invited many scientists to publish their studies in our journal and we succeed to publish many invaluable papers. 

Preface
Determination of Knowledge on the Academic Staff Concerning Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)

This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and behavior level of the academic staff at Bitlis Eren University (BEU) related to GMOs. The general information levels (GILs) were found not to be significant (p > 0.05), in terms of gender, age, department, education level and title, but found to be significant (p < 0.05) in terms of marital status. The GILs were changing between 19 and 36 and were 28.1±3.1 on average. According to these data, it can be said that academic staff have a medium of knowledge about GMOs. They have stated that GMOs are commonly used in agriculture fields (91.7%); they are mostly informed via TV/radio or the internet (34.0%); the most reliable resources are universities (69.9%); they want to be mostly informed about its benefits, risks (75.0%) and its place in Turkey (51.3%); they think they consumed GMOs (75.6%), they are not informed about labels (76.9%), they do not have enough information (60.9%) and that they want to be informed (92.9%) about the topic. The academic staff said that the effects of GMOs are too dangerous, they do not find the applications ethique, they wouldn’t consume GMOs and they were absolutely against to the import of GMOs. In conclusion, it has been revealed that more information is necessary about GMOs as they will be very important for the new generations. 

377 - 383
A Case Study of the Abandoned Fibre and Oil Crop Plant (Linum usitatissimum) with Special Reference to Recultivation in Turkey ​

Based on the archaeobotanical evidence from the Fertile Crescent, flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) usage dates back to 10.000 BC. It was one of the important crops for fibre and oil production during the Ottoman Empire and the beginning of the Turkish Republic times. Due to changing agriculture policy and lifestyle of the local people, flax agriculture has been abandoned. However, several local organizations, both governmental and non-governmental, have been trying to keep this agricultural heritage by various activities. 

385 - 391
Production and Optimization of α-Amylase from Bacillus circulans ATCC 4516 with Solid State Fermentation ​

The aim of this paper is to study influence of the certain production parameters of α-amylase by Bacillus circulans ATCC 4516. Optimization parameters of α-amylase were carried out with solid state fermentation (SSF). Solid waste from rice bran used as the basic nutrient source. Supplementation with carbon and metal salt sources decrased the enzyme production. Certain fermentation parameters involving incubation time, incubation temperature, inoculum level, initial pH and extraction medium were studied separately. Maximal amount of α-amylase production (2716.9 ± 35.9 U/mg) was obtained inoculum level 25%, initial pH 7.5 at 37oC for 48 h with supplementation of ammonium chloride. 

393 - 400
A Validated RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of Ornidazole in Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

Anew, simple, rapid, selective, precise and accurate isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography assay has been developed and validated for assay of Ornidazole in tablet formulations. Tinidazole was used as an internal standard. These compounds are separated well on a X-Terra (Waters Corp., Milford, MA, USA) RP-18 column by using a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of acetonitrile : water (30:70; v/v) adjusted to pH 3.00 with 10 mM o-phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The method was validated as per the ICH guidelines. 

401 - 407
Gelatin/Oxide-Dextran Cryogels: In-Vitro Biocompatibility Evaluations

Engineering a tissue requires implantation of a suitable support/matrix material; seeded with appropriate cells and signaling molecules. Scaffolds which are the support material for the ex-vivo tissue formation, should have desired properties to form a biologically compatible constructs. In this recent study 3D polymeric gelatin/oxide dextran scaffolds were prepared by cryogelation. The cell-scaffold interactions were evaluated by Scanning Electron Microcopy and Confocal Laser Microscopy. Biocompatibility and haemocompatibility of the scaffolds and possible cytotoxicity were also investigated. Possible genotoxic effects of the scaffolds were evaluated with DNA fragmentation and breakage. Our results demonstrated that, gelatin/ox-dextran scaffolds which were prepared by cryogelation present no cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, show higher bio and haemocompatibility with excellent chondrocyte interaction. 

409 - 417
Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of 6-Aminouracil Tetracyanonickelate Complexes

The FT-IR, FT-Raman and far-IR spectra of two dimensional coordination polymer compounds, M(6AU)2Ni(CN)4 (where M = Mn, Co, Ni and Cd; 6AU = 6-aminouracil = 4-amino-2,6-dihydroxypyrimidine) were reported for the first time. 6-aminouracil molecules are found to involve coordination through one of the pyrimidine ring nitrogen atoms. The spectral features suggest that the compounds are similar in structure to the Hofmann type two dimensional coordination polymer compounds, formed with Ni(CN)42- ions bridged by M(6AU)22+ cations. Vibrational bands originated from both 6AU and Ni(CN)4 group were assigned. 

419 - 426
H-Bonding Effect in Radical Terpolymerization of Maleic anhydride, Acrylic acid (Methyl acrylate) and Vinyl acetate

The ternary copolymerization of vinyl acetate (VA), maleic anhydride (MA) and acrylic acid (AA) or methylacrylate (MAc as a model comonomer), considered as donor-acceptor-acceptor systems, was carried out in p-dioxane in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator in nitrogen atmosphere at 70ºC. Constants of copolymerization and complex formation for the monomer systems studied were determined by the Kelen-Tüdös, UV(H-complex) and 1H-NMR (CTC, charge transfer complex) methods, respectively. Analogous H-complex effect is evidenced from comparison of copolymerization of both MA-AA (H-complex) and MA-MAc binary systems in which are realized alternating and random copolymerization, respectively. Hydrolyzed VA- MA-AA terpolymers with different composition containing regular H-complexed fragments in side-chain of macromolecules are displayed different thermal properties, including glass-transition and melting (crystalline phase) behaviors, depending on content of H-bonding fragment. Structural peculiarities (FTIR analysis) and structure-thermal properties (DSC and TGA analyses) and crystalline (X-ray diffraction analysis) relationship of terpolymers synthesized are also discussed. 

427 - 443
Statistical Analysis of Blood Cells and Blood Proteins Behaviours contacted with PMEA- coated and Uncoated Oxygenators

The blood compatibility of the polymethoxyethyle acrylate (PMEA) coated and uncoated hollow fibers were investigated using multivariate statistical methods. The patients were divided into two groups where one is PMEA-coated fibers used patients and the other is uncoated oxygenator fibers used patients. The two groups were evaluated by total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, erythrocyte, albumin, fibrinogen, leukocyte, and total protein analysis results. Three evaluations were taken for comparison: baseline (T1), after protamine injection (T4) and intensive care (T5). There are no significant differences in the comparison. Additionally, the measurements were also compared by age. The patients were divided to four different age groups and no differences were found between the age groups except intensive care fibrinogen value and baseline protrombine time (Pt) Value. Then attempt were made to look for the significant correlation value of the measurements. After significant one was found, one measurement value was taken as dependent variable and the measurements, which are highly correlated with dependent variable as independent variables in the regression model. All of the models established that the analysis were significant with both squared r, p and F values. In some regression models, only interaction effect was seen with the variables, which means that PMEA-coating created more hydrophilic surfaces for protein adsorption when compared with uncoated Cardiopulmonary by pass filters. 

445 - 455
Growth and Reproductive Properties of an Endemic Species, Gobio hettitorum Ladiges, 1960, in Yeşildere Stream, Karaman, Turkey

The age composition, growth parameters and reproductive properties of Gobio hettitorum, Ladiges, 1960 caught in Yeşildere Stream, Karaman (Central Anatolia), were studied by sampling carried out between July 2006 and June 2007. A total of 498 specimens were examined. The age composition of the species ranged from 0 to 5. The specimens of the population were 44.97% (224) male, 47.99% (239) female and 7.03% (35) unidentified. The mean fork length and weight of the samples ranged from 30.0 mm to 161.0 mm and 0.29 g to 40.42 g respectively. The average condition factors varied from 1.03 to 1.38. In females, the average maximum condition factor was 1.59 in June 2007 and in males, it was 1.42 in October 2006. The reproductive period of G. hettitorum was recorded from March to July, and average maximum gonadosomatic index values were estimated to be 12.94 for females and 2.33 for males in May 2007. According to the gonadosomatic index values, the maximum egg diameter of females was 0.74 mm in May 2007. Fecundity was calculated as 420 (age class 2) to 4.418 (age class 5) eggs/female.

There are few studies on the growth and reproductive strategy of the genus Gobio in Europe. The current study investigated the growth and reproductive characteristics of G. hettitorum inhabiting Yesildere Stream, providing important information for the conservation of this endemic species. 

457 - 468
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