Volume 40 Issue 2

April 2012

Antimicrobial Activities, Absorption Characteristics and Tautomeric Structures of o,o’-Hydroxyazo Dyes Containing an Acryloyloxy Group and Their Chromium Complexes

The UV-VIS behavior of (E)-1-((2-hydroxy-5-methylphenyl)diazenyl)naphthalene-2,7-diol and the acrylate derivatives and their chromium complexes were determined in different solvents, pH and temperature. The dyes were found to exist in azo and hydrazone tautomeric equilibrium in solution. And also, the o,o’- dihydroxyazo dyes and chromium complexes were tested for antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. Dye I generally affected all microorganisms, while compounds II, III and IV were more effective against P. aeroginosa and E. coli. Because dye I has an antimicrobial effect on both bacteria and fungus it finds good use in various applications such as textile fiber dyeing, and biomedical studies. Significantly, this dye could also lead to the development of new antifungal drugs. 

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Purification of Ca Isoenzymes from Human Cancerous Colon Tissue and Inhibitory Effects of Some Analgesics on Enzyme Activity

Carbonic Anhydrase (CA) is an enzyme which is responsible for the hydration of carbon dioxide to carbonic acid and it also takes places in many biological processes in the living organisms. In this study, CA isoenzymes (CA II and CA IX) together were purified 78.4 fold with a yield of 54.86 and specific activity of 106.67 by using Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine sulfanilamide affinity chromatography. In SDS-PAGE molecular weights of CA II and CA IX were calculated as 29 kDa and 56 kDa respectively. Besides inhibitory effects of some analgesics on purified total enzyme was investigated. IC50 values were found as 0.0077, 0.025, 0.011 and 0.04 mM for dexketoprofen, pethidine, phenyramidol and tramadol respectively. 

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Purification and Characterization of α-Carbonic Anhydrase II from Sheep Liver and Examining the Inhibition Effect of Kanamycin on Enzyme Activity

Sheep carbonic anhydrase - II (SCA-II) (E.C: was purified from sheep liver and some characteristic properties were investigated. The enzyme was purified approximate 43.1-fold with a yield of 38.6%, and a specific activity of 4000 EU/mg proteins. For the enzyme, optimum pH, optimum temperature, optimum ionic strength and stable pH were determined to be 7.5, 40ºC, 10 mM and 8.5, respectively. The molecular weight was found 29 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Kanamycin ex- hibited in vitro inhibitory effect on the enzyme activity. 

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Physicochemical Properties of Invertase Partitioned in an Aqueous Two-Phase System of Poly(Ethylene Glycol)/Sodium Sulfate

Biochemical properties of an enzyme are very important for its applications in various fields. In the present work, we have investigated some parameters affecting to the invertase activity and stability which was partitioned in poly(ethylene glycol)/sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS). The optimum temperature and pH of the invertase were found as 50ºC and pH 5.0, respectively. The enzyme was very stable at the temperature ranged from 25 to 50ºC and also in a pH range of 4.0-7.5. The enzyme was stored at 4ºC and lost about only 47% of its initial activity at the end of two months. Kinetic parameters; Km and Vmax were determined as 4.65 mM and 30 U, respectively. The effect of various effectors on the activity of the invertase was also searched. Especially, Mn+2 ions showed an activator effect for invertase. Invertases are still efficient tools in various biotechnological applications especially in the food and beverage industry. The results obtained in this study indicate that, characteristic properties of invertase partitioned by PEG/Na2SO4 aqueous two-phase system is very suitable for its industrial applications. The relatively wide range of pH and temperature for activity and stability exhibited by invertase could be very interesting for the food processes. 

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Effects of Extracts Obtained from Nepeta italica L. and Nepeta cilicia Boiss. Apud Bentham on Antioxidant Enzymes

In the study, the effects of methanol and hexane extracts obtained from Nepeta italica L. and Nepeta cilicia Boiss. apud Bentham on antioxidant enzymes in healthy rat erythrocyte were studied. The ethanol extract of N. cilicia caused a decrease in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and an increase in catalase (CAT) activity. There wasn’t significant enzyme value in the group treated with the hexane extract of N. cilicia. However, the ethanol extract of N. italica caused a decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT activities. In group treated with hexane extract of N. italica, a significant decrease in SOD and CAT activities was observed, whereas a significant increase in G6PD activity was observed. Also, a statistically significant difference in MDA wasn’t found in all groups. In conclusion, it may suggest that the extracts are devoid of pro- oxidant properties, because lipid peroxidation hasn’t been observed, although the extracts have caused some changes in antioxidant enzymes. 

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Determination of Ochratoxin A in Grape Wines after Dispersive Liquid–Liquid Microextraction Using High Performance Thin Layer and Liquid Chromatography– Fluorescence Detection

In this study, a method was developed for analyzing ochratoxin A in wines using dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction combined with thin layer and liquid chromatography. Parameters such as type and volume of extraction solvent and dispersive solvent, extraction time and effect of salt were optimized to obtain the best extraction result. The linearity of response was employed in the concentration range of ochratoxin A in wines from 0.03-1.00 μg L-1. Under the optimum conditions, the extraction recovery as 63.9% and the enrichment factor as 34.5 were established. 

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The Comparative Study on the Acute Toxicity of Dichlorvos on Guppy (Poecilia reticulata, P., 1859) and Carp (Cyprinus carpio, L., 1758)

Dichlorvos, which is extensively used organophosphate insecticide, was investigated in the present study for acute toxicity. Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) were selected for the bioassay experiments. The experiments were repeated 3 times and 180 guppy and 180 carp were used. Behavioral changes of fishes at each dichlorvos concentrations were observed for the individual fish. Lethal concentration of the insecticide on two fish species were determined using the Finney Probit Analysis Statistical Method. The 96-h LC50 values for guppy and carp were estimated as 1.84 mg/L and 2.51 mg/L respectively. 

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Are There any Toxic Effects of Food Additive Tricalcium Phosphate on Pregnant Rats and Their Fetuses?

The aim of the study was to evaluate the maternal and fetal developmental toxicity of food additive Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in Wistar rats. Two doses of TCP (E341) 175 mg/kg bw/day (TCP I group) and 350 mg/kg bw/day (TCP II group) were administered to rats during gestation days (GD) 0-20. The possible toxic effects of TCP exposure were investigated by biochemical, histopathological and morphological examinations. All dams were observed for maternal body weights, food and water consumptions and subjected to caesarean- section on gestation day GD20. According to maternal haematological analysis, lymphocyte, monocyte and neutrophil percentages were changed in TCP I and TCP II groups. Biochemical analysis showed that while enzyme activi- ties of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and levels of urea and creatinine did not change among groups; alkaline phosphatase activity increased in TCP I group. There were histopathological changes in maternal liver, kidney, heart, brain tissues and fetal liver, kidney and placenta tissues in treatment groups. 

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Bioengineering Functional Copolymers. XX. Synthesis of Novel Anticancer Active Poly(maleic anhydride-alt-2-vinyl-1,3-dioxolane) and its Organoboron Amide-Ester Branched Derivatives ​

Novel bioengineering alternating copolymer and its organoboron amide and a-hydroxy-w- methoxypoly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) branched derivatives were synthesized by (1) complex-radical alternating copolymerization of two non-homopolymerizable in chosen reaction conditions monomers such as maleic anhydride (MA) and 2-vinyl-1,3-dioxolane (VDO), (2) amidolysis of synthesized poly(MA-alt-VDO) with 2-aminoethyldiphenylboronate and (3) esterification-grafting of organoboron copolymer with PEO. The complex-formation (Kc) and the monomer reactivity ratios (r1 and r2 copolymerization constants), structure and composition of the synthesized copolymers were characterized by chemical (alkali titration), FTIR-ATR and NMR spectroscopy, TGA-DSC thermal analysis methods. Cytotoxicity found as having an order as organoboron branched PEO copolymer < poly(MA-alt-VDO) < organoboron copolymer of these novel copolymers containing a combination of ionizable, hydrophilic/hydrophobic, organoboron, carboxyl-amide-ester-ether groups, toward HeLa cells was investigated. 

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Endemic Plants and Their Threat Categories of Muğla Province (Turkey)

This study aimed to identify endemic plants distributed in Muğla province (Western Mediterranean region of Turkey), which is in the C1 and C2 squares according to P.H. Davis. The results of the botanical investigations have been performed so far showed that 414 endemic taxa within 161 genera of 45 families were distributed in Muğla province. 40.6% (168 taxa) of these were reported for the first time as new taxa. While 300 (72.5%) of the endemic taxa, distributed in Muğla province, are the members of Mediterranean phytogeographic region, 26 taxa (6.3%), 2 taxa (0.4%) and 1 taxon (0.2%) of them are belong to Irano-Turanian, Euxine and Euro- Siberian phytogeographic regions, respectively. The remaining 85 taxa (20.6%) are widely distributed or not to be specified to any phytogeographic region. While the families rich in endemic taxa are Asteraceae (51 taxa), Lamiaceae (50 taxa), Caryophyllaceae (42 taxa), Scrophulariaceae (31 taxa) and Liliaceae (30 taxa), the genus rich in endemic taxa are Verbascum (21 taxa), Centaurea (17 taxa), Crocus (11 taxa), Astragalus (10 taxa), Silene (10 taxa) and Arenaria (10 taxa). According to the threat categories assigned by IUCN in Red Data Book of Turkish Plants, the 47.1% (195 taxa), 15.2% (63 taxa), 13.8% (57 taxa), 11.6 % (48 taxa), 11.4% (47 taxa) and 0.5% (2 taxa) of the endemic taxa distributed in Muğla province are categorized as LC, EN, VU, CR, NT and DD respectively. 

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