Volume 39 Issue 4

December 2011

Plasma fractionation: conventional and chromatographic methods for albumin purification

Plasma fractionation is the first process for large scale protein purification developed about 60 years ago by Cohn and co-workers. Currently therapeutically important proteins are human serum albumin (HSA), immunoglobulin G (IgG), coagulation factor VIII and protease inhibitors. HSA is one of the most abundant proteins in plasma and, together with IgGs, constitutes 80% of all plasma proteins. According to the data, HSA represented approximately 50% of all sales of therapeutic plasma protein products. The purification of HSA is generally required for the treatment of hypoproteinemia and heavy loss of blood, requires relatively high purity for medical use. HSA also used for therapeutic purposes such as shock, burns, hypoalbuminemia, surgery, trauma, cardiopulmonary bypass, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, hemodialysis, acute nephrosis, hyperbilirubinemia, acute liver failure, acites, and sequestration of protein-rich fluids in acute peritonitis, pancreatitis, mediastinitis and extensive cellulites. 

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Management Plan of Körkün Valley Near Adana in Mediterranean Region in Turkey

Different aquatic ecosystems are being evaluated to provide energy. A management plan is to be made to determine whether the projects are applicable or not. This study demonstrates possible changes and their potential causes of biological changes as well as measures to be taken regarding both living organisms (invertebrates and vertebrates: fish, amphibias, reptiles; bird and mammal species) and plants, the most important element of ecosystems. Only one species of aquatic living elements, called Capeota damasciana, lives in this area. This species are not in any danger of extinction either. Among the animal species of amphibians, Salamandra s. Salamandra is in danger of extinction. It will not be affected by the changes made in the water regime of the river, as it lives near the river basin. In addition, there are no reptile species in danger of extinction that live in the basin and near the basin. Those that are in danger of extinction live in other regions. A total of 112 bird species have been identified, and their status and levels of extinction danger have been determined. Of the bird species, Neophron percnopterus needs support for food. Capra aegagrus and Lynx lynx are the mammal species that are most likely to be under most effect. It is forbidden to game these species. Capra aegagrus come to the watercourse of Körkün in order to drink water. It is necessary to keep the river water to be used for hydorelectricity in the watercourse at 25-30% level (as life water) in order to meet the water requirements of wild goat and other species to protect the biological elements in the ecosystems of Körkün. This study reveals the conditions of management plan so that the project will not lead to bad effect in the future. 

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Peptide Based Biological Active Molecules

There has been an enormous development in peptide chemistry with regard not only to the isolation, synthesis, structure identification, and elucidation of the mode of action of peptides, but also to their applications as tools in the life sciences. Peptides have been of interest in biochemistry, chemistry, biology, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, biotechnology, and gene technology. These important natural products have a broad range with in point of their complexity. Since different amino acids are connected via peptide bonds to produce a peptide or a protein, a number of different sequences are possible–depending on the different building blocks and length of the peptide. As all peptides display a high degree of conformational diversity, it follows that many diverse and highly specific structures can be observed. Although many researches have dealt with the synthetic aspects of peptide chemistry, this review covers its biological applications of peptide based molecules. 

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Preparation and Characterization of Poly(acrylamide/maleic acid)-based hydrogels Composites

The principle aim of this investigation was the preparation and characterization of the composites formed from Bentonite (B) and Zeolite (Z) minerals, and polyacrylamide-co-maleic acid (PAA-MA) hydrogel polymers. The procedures used in obtaining the polymers were also applied in preparation of the composites by direct polymerization of the monomers of interests dissolved in the suspension of B or Z. The prepared PAA-MA and the composites were characterized with the data and analysis results obtained from FT-IR, TGA, SEM, BET-porosity and Zero Point of Surface Charge (PZC). The results of FT-IR, TGA, SEM, BET-porosity and PZC analysis presented certain evidences for the formation of composites, it was impressed that the composites were the mixtures composed of two phases composing of organic (PAA-MA) and inorganic (B or Z) phases rather than the formation of polymer/ mineral hybrid. 

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Effects of Conformation and Molecular Weight on The Surface Energy and Mucoadhesion Properties of Calcium Alginate Gels

In this study, the effects of the ratio of guluronic acid (G) to mannuronic acid (M) (G/M) and molecular weight of sodium alginate on the mucoadhesion and surface energy (g) properties were investigated. Sodium alginate fractions were prepared by radiation induced degradation and calcium alginate gels were prepared in the form of three-dimensional structure by using an in-situ gelling method. In order to determine the free energy of bioadhesion, the contact angles of paraffin, ethylene glycol and water on the surface of gels were measured. Based on the contact angles, the g components of the Liftshitz-van der Waals and the Lewis acid base interactions were calculated. It was found that CaAlg gels would lead to a thermodynamically favorable bioadhesion process, a decrease in the molecular weight of sodium alginate could increase the bioadhesion of CaAlg polymers, and that the bioadhesion of these gels was independent of G/M. 

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Dephenolization of Olive Mill Wastewater by Pellets of Some White Rot Fungi

The present study was aimed at evaluating the phenol removal efficiency of growing cell of some lignin- degrading fungi. The experiments were carried out both at olive mill wastewater (OMWW) based medium and at OMWW medium supplemented with nutrient with Trametes versicolor ATCC200801, Phanerochaete chrysosporium ME 446, and Pleurotus ostreatus. Correlation could be established between phenol removal determined and extracellular enzyme activity measured end of the incubation time; therefore, enzymatic dephenolization experiments were also performed. With experiments related to growing cell, the most stable strain, optimum incubation time, dilution of OMWW, medium were selected as T.versicolor ATCC200801, 9th day, 15%, and only OMWW based medium without nutrient, respectively. In this study, 97% of phenol removal was obtained not including the requirement of adaptation phase, pretreatment, and adding of any nutrients, which these findings, not demonstrated in the previous studies related to OMWW. 

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Levels of Heavy Metals and Certain Macro Elements in Potable and Tap Water at Van City Center

In this study, conducted on 100 samples of potable water and tap water taken from 10 different water stations selected randomly from various locations within Van City center, levels of heavy metals (lead, manganese, cadmium, zinc, copper, iron, nickel, cobalt) and certain macro elements (magnesium, sodium, calcium) were determined with Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Heavy metal concentrations of water samples were found to be as follows: Pb 0.016-0.082 mg/L, Mn 0.007-0.015 mg/L, Cd 0.001-0.005 mg/L, Zn 0.03- 0.40 mg/L, Cu 0.006- 0.11 mg/L, Fe 0.001-0.18 mg/L, Ni 0.012-0.046 mg/L, Co 0.007-0.014 mg/L; and macro element concentrations were as follows: Mg 6.78-6.81 mg/L, Na 3.88-6.68 mg/L and Ca 31.06-38.49 mg/L. According to the above data, lead levels in all water samples are found to be over national and international standards. 

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Screening to Mycelium Specifications of Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst (Reishi)

In this study, morphological and anatomical structures of Ganoderma lucidum-Reishi known as immortality mushroom were examined. Part of the tissue of G. lucidum was inoculated potato dextrose agar center and they were incubated at 28ºC, the dark for a period of 22 days. At the end of the incubation period; mycelium formed white color and very solid tissue. Anatomical studies of spore and mycelium of G. lucidum were identified with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and light microscopy (LM) separately and were micrographied. 

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A New Method for Paper Conservation: Triple Mixture of Methyl Cellulose, Carboxymethyl Cellulose and Nano-Micro Calcium Hydroxide Particles

In this study, a new method was developed for combining deacidification and strengthening steps of paper conservation, by using triple mixture containing methyl cellulose, carboxymethyl cellulose and nano-micro calcium hydroxide particles in suitable ratios. This new method was developed by investigating the effects of the triple mixture at different ratios on deacidification and mechanical strength of paper samples before and after thermal ageing. It was observed that the triple mixture containing 1% (w/v) methyl cellulose, 1% (w/v) carboxymethyl cellulose and 1% (w/v) nano-micro calcium hydroxide particles neutralized acidic substitutes in paper, formed enough amount of alkaline reserve and increased tensile strength of paper by 100 %. The me- chanical strength of paper samples before and after thermal ageing was evaluated by tensile strength, folding endurance and whiteness tests. SEM pictures were also used for characterizations. The deacidification quality of new method was evaluated together with alkaline reserve, surface pH and pH of aqueous extracts. 

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Purification of Glutathione S-Transferase Enzyme from Rainbow Trout Erythrocytes and Examination of the Effects of Certain Antibiotics on Enzyme Activity

The present study investigated the effects of certain antibiotics on the enzyme activity of glutathione- S-transferase (EC obtained from rainbow trout erythrocytes. For this purpose, erythrocyte glutathione S-transferase enzyme was purified 8714-fold by glutathione–agarose affinity chromatography with a yield of 90%. Temperature was kept under control (4ºC) during purification. Enzyme purification was checked by performing SDS-PAGE. A single band was obtained approximately at 23 kDa. GST enzyme activity was determined by spectroscopic monitoring of the formation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene-glutathione (CDNB- GSH) conjugate. The same method was used for all kinetic studies. Furthermore, by examining the inhibitory effects upon enzyme activity of antibiotics such as gentamicin, amikacin, cefuroxime sodium, ampicillin, ornidazole, and metranidazole, the IC50 values and Ki constants were calculated and inhibition types were identified for gentamicin, amikacin, and cefuroxime sodium, medications that displayed high inhibitory effects. 

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Measurement of Melatonin in Pearl mullets, an Endemic Species Growing in Lake Van, and Trouts

In the present study, the melatonin levels were measured in pearl mullets (also known as Van fish) and trouts. Pearl mullets grow naturally in Lake Van in Turkey, and trouts, raised by private fish farms, were used as study materials. These fish are known to secrete melatonin, a hormone associated with development and stress, as occurs in human beings. Melatonin was measured in the plasma taken from living pearl mullets and trouts by an ELISA method using commercial kits. The study was conducted in accordance with the ELISA kit procedure. In the spring, the mean melatonin levels of trouts were 160.8 ± 4.090 pg/mL in light and 198.3 ± 3.694 pg/mL in dark, whereas in winter 86.69 ± 3.203 pg/mL and 128.9 ± 1.999 pg/mL in light and dark, respectively. In pearl mullets, the mean melatonin levels were 84.73 ± 2.281 pg/mL in light and 118.1 ± 2.560 pg/mL in dark in spring, and in winter 36.32 ± 1.627 pg/mL in light and 70.53 ± 2.919 pg/mL in darks (p < 0.001).The results emphasized the significance of the photoperiod. 

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Allergen Alternaria and Cladosporium Spores Concentration in the Atmosphere of Çamkoru (Ankara - Turkey), 2003 - 2004 ​

Alternaria and Cladosporium spores have been shown to be important aeroallergens in many regions throughout the world and the densities of these spores show considerable differences according to the years. Therefore, Alternaria and Cladosporium spores were collected with a Durham sampler in the atmosphere of Çamkoru (Ankara), between September 2003 to August 2004. Spores/cm2 of Alternaria and Cladosporium were recorded daily. Monthly total spores/cm2 of Alternaria and Cladosporium were corralated with the monthly meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, wind speed) of the same period by using Spearman correlation analysis. During this period, a total of 684 spores/cm2 belong to Alternaria and Cladosporium genera were determined. 406 (59.36%) spores/cm2 of this total belong to Cladosporium and remaining 278 (40.64%) spores/cm2 to Alternaria. The concentration of Alternaria and Cladosporium spores reached to highest ratios in May, 2004. According to Spearman correlation analysis the quantity of Alternaria ve Cladosporium spores shows significant positive relationship with the temperature and the wind speed, but showed insignificant negative relationship with the rainfall. These findings will help to the allergist for the diagnosis, tracing and treatment of the respiratory system diseases. 

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Antimicrobial activity of Emblica officinalis, Saraca indica and Terminalia arjuna against Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) Bacterial Pathogens

Plant based antimicrobials represent a vast untapped source of medicines and has enormous therapeutic potential. In the present investigation three commonly available plants were screened namely Emblica officinalis, Saraca indica and Terminalia arjuna for antimicrobial activity against four Multi-Drug Resistant (MDR) strains, namely Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts was determined with the help of agar well diffusion method. Result showed that the ethanolic extract appears to have more antimicrobial activity in comparison to the aqueous extract and leaf extract of E.officinalis showed maximum antimicrobial activity in comparison to the leaf extracts of S.indica and T.arjuna. This study highlights that crude extracts of E. officinalis, S. indica and T. arjuna are effective against MDR pathogens. Further study on purification of active ingredient and their efficacy in controlling MDR is in progress. 

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